Scottish Public Opinion and The Making of the Treaty of Union of 1707
Karin Bowie University of Glasgow
The 1707 Treaty of Union – Rules of Government
On 1 May 1707, the two kingdoms of Scotland and England shall be united into one kingdom GREAT BRITAIN and the crosses of St Andrew and St George be joined and used in flags, banners, standards and ensigns at sea and on land.
The succession to the throne of Great Britain will pass to the Protestant heirs of Princess Sophia of Hanover and all Papists shall be excluded from the Crown of Great Britain.
The United Kingdom will be represented by one and the same Parliament to be called the Parliament of Great Britain.
Scotland will keep its own separate laws, legal system and courts of law.
The Royal Burghs of Scotland and those holding heritable jurisdictions i.e. posts and offices granted for life, will have their rights and privileges preserved after union.
Scotland will be represented by 16 peers in the House of Lords and 45 members of Parliament in the House of Commons in the first Parliament of Great Britain. Scottish peers will have the same privileges as English peers.
After the Union, there will be one Great Seal for Great Britain but Scotland will retain use of the Great Seal of Scotland for matters relating to private rights or grants. The Scottish Crown, Sceptre and Sword of State and all Scottish public and private records will be kept and will remain in Scotland.
The final article revokes all previous acts that might operate against the union and confirms the full authority of law in passing the Act of Union.
All subjects of Great Britain will have freedom of trade within the United Kingdom and with her colonies.
All trading ships will be registered with Customs Officers in Great Britain.
Great Britain will operate the same trade regulations and be liable for the same customs and duties on imports and exports.
The level of excise duty on liquor set across England will operate throughout Great Britain.
Scotland will receive the sum of £398,085 10s sterling, known as the Equivalent:
- to reimburse Scottish investors for their losses in the Darien colony
- to close the Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies
- to pay overdue salaries to Scottish government officials
- to invest in promoting the fishing industry, the manufacture of coarse wool and other industries in Scotland
- to help Scotland pay new taxes due in the future from the British Parliament.
Great Britain will use the same currency. Coins minted in Scotland will have the same value as those minted in England.
Great Britain will use the same form of weights and measures. The Scottish system will be abolished and replaced with the English system.
Scotland will pay
- a new land tax
- new taxes on salt and malt but not until 1710
- duties on windows and lights, and on coal, culm [coal dust] and cinders but not until 1710.
Scotland will not pay
- duties on stamped paper, vellum and parchment.