Libya – Ripped Apart By The West – Now They Cannot Put It Back Together Again – Another Human Disaster Attributed to the Greed of the West






Libya  –  The Poor Humpty Dumpty State – Ripped Apart By The West –  They Cannot Put It back Together Again – So What Are We To Do?

2011:  In December 2010 trouble broke out in Tunisia resulting in the overthrow of the government and removal of it’s President. The event proved to be the catalyst for disaffected populations across the arab middle east and resulted in the much vaunted “Arab Spring”. Governments and leaders of many countries affected by unrest feared Western style democracy and were not willing to give up long established controls and systems of governance widely accepted by Muslim society.

This included Libya tightly controlled by Gaddafi for decades. Fearing a growing influence of hard line Islamic agitators including Al-Queda within Libya, (in particular Bengahzi) he clamped down hard on any disturbance. The West, keen as ever on spreading democracy persuaded strict Islamist arab countries, unfriendly with Gaddafi (who was more relaxed about the imposition of Islamic law on Libyans), to apply pressure.

Quatar, (backed by the UK, USA and others) started supplying arms and ammunition to rebel groups encouraging their growth and influence and faced with growing unrest Gaddafi instructed his forces to destroy any islamist groups operating against his government. This they speedily accomplished within a matter of days.

Small pockets of resistence took up sniping positions within Benghazi and there was a deal of hard fighting before they were dislodged. Unfortunately there were many civilian casualties caught up in bitterly fought exchages between government forces and the rebels.

Failure by the rebels to establish themselves in Libya was imminent and France and the UK went to the UN seeking a mandate allowing NATO forces to be deployed over Libyan airspace preventing Libyan government airforces from attacking the civilian population, (which had been reported to the West from within Libya).

The UN supported a very narrow remit allowing NATO aircraft unrestricted access to Libyan airspace, but strictly only to provide the humanitarian support to the civilian population as stated in the request placed with the UN. Many countries abstained from the vote so it was not inanimously agreed.

The UK and France armed with their remit consulted NATO members seeking support but the response was disappointing. Only 3 countries agreed to get actively involved. President Obama, facing an election advised that the USA would not become directly involved but would provide logistic support to the effort.

What occurred over the next 9 months invited shame on the USA, UK France and Italy who, by their actions brought about the wholesale destruction, (NATO planes flew 22,000 sorties over Libya over a period of 9 months) of Libya. NATO ignored the UN remit and brought about regime change the adverse effects of which are being foisted upon the EU through a mass migration of many thousands of muslim refugee’s which is expected to increase further over the next decade. The population of Libya is reduced by about 25% so it is not a good place to be.

The full impact of uncontrolled unremitting migration will bring about major difficulties within the EU and may well result in some countries withdrawing from it adopting isolationist agenda’s taking control of their own immigration policies.




This is the sequence of events: 16 February: Riots break out in Libyan city as regional unrest deepens

* Hundreds of people clash with police and pro-government supports in the Libyan city of Benghazi in a rare show of unrest.
* Crowds armed with petrol bombs and rocks clashed with police and government supporters in the city of Benghazi in a rare show of unrest in the oil exporting country.
* According to local media reports and witnesses, protesters gathered outside a government office then marched to the city’s Shajara square where the clashes began.
* Libya has been tightly controlled by leader Muammar Gaddafi for over 40 years but has also felt the ripples from popular revolts in its neighbours Egypt and Tunisia.
* The Quryna newspaper, based in Benghazi, said rioting was now over and that government supporters had taken over the square, although tensions have remained high.
* Fourteen people were injured including ten police officers, none of the injuries are reported to be serious. The clashes came ahead of a planned “Day of Rage” by on Thursday.
* Witnesses said those involved in the clashes were relatives of inmates in Tripoli’s Abu Salim jail, where militant Islamists and government opponents are held.
* Libyan state television said separately that rallies were being held across the oil exporting country on Wednesday in support of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
* Libyan state television showed footage of a rally in the Libyan capital, Tripoli, of government supporters.



18 February: Human Rights Watch reports 84 deaths since the start of riots.



22 February: Arab League suspends Libyan delegates from its meetings.

* UN Security Council calls for an end to the use of force against protesters and reminds the Libyan government it must “meet its responsibility to protect its population.

* Secretary General Ban Ki-moon calls the situation “unacceptable” and says it must “immediately stop.”





24 February: European Union diplomats meet to discuss sanctions

* To include EU travel ban, asset freeze and arms embargo.

* EU suspends negotiations on bilateral relations with Libya.

* Switzerland freezes Muammar Gaddafi’s Swiss assets.



26 February: UN Security Council announces sanctions against Libya

* Includes arms embargo, travel ban and asset freeze on Gaddafi’s family and other regime figures.

* Situation referred to the International Criminal Court.

* US President Barack Obama says Gaddafi has “lost the legitimacy to rule” and must leave “now”.



28 February: Libya’s ambassador to the UN breaks down in tears at a Security Council meeting

* Denounces Gaddafi, adding “please United Nations, save Libya.”

* European Union adopts arms embargo and an asset freeze against Gaddafi and his closest allies:



1 March: UN General Assembly suspends Libya from the Human Rights Council.



3 March: Following Resolution 1970 of the UN Security Council, the International Criminal Court launches an investigation against Gaddafi, his sons and his close circle for crimes against humanity.




5 March: National Transition Council (NTC, set up by anti-Gaddafi rebels in Benghazi) declare themselves the only true representatives of Libya.



8 March: EU strengthens financial sanctions.

* Arab monarchies of the Gulf, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) announce support for a ‘no-fly’ zone suggested by Britain and France.



10 March: France first country to recognise the NTC as the “legitimate representative of the Libyan people.”



11 March: Leaders of the 27 EU countries organise a special summit to discuss Libya.

* Uunanimous vote that Gaddafi must leave power immediately.

* German Chancellor says she is sceptical about a ‘no-fly’ zone proposed by Britain and France.



12 March: Arab League asks the UN to authorise a ‘no-fly’ zone.



16 March: Gaddafi appears on Libyan state television

* He is in a defiant mood calling on people not to let the rebels divide Libya.

* Angered by international reaction he said  “France is now raising it’s head and wants to attack Libya”.

* Directing his comments at President Sarkozy he said “it is us who attack you..try to attack us.” He is convinced that his forces will win the battle for control of Libya.



16 March: Saif al-Gaddafi asks Sarkosy to repay Libyan contibutions to his presidential campaign.

* He said “Sarkozy must repay Libya the money he took for his election campaign. * We financed his election campaign and we have all the details and we are ready to publish them.

* The first thing we ask of this clown Sarkozy is that he repay this money to the Libyan people.

* We helped him become president so that he would help the Libyan people but he has disappointed us.

* Very soon we will publish all the details and the documents and banking pay slips.* What is being seen in the streets is not protesters but armed militias who kill people and frighten them and hang them.

* You have seen them in Albayda executing police officers, hanging people from the bridges, and in Misrata they burned a man in the public square.

* These people don’t believe in dialogue or human rights or democracy. They are criminals and luckily they take photos and videos of what they do and publish them.

* Today the Libyan people have revolted and are defending their land and their country.



16 March: Saif al-Gaddafi Claims Libya People are on the Side of the Government

* Every day the Libyan army liberates a town and the people come out into the streets, happy to celebrate these victories.

* The entire Libyan people are united against these militias and terrorists, even in the army there are volunteers who have joined up to fight.

* We want to make political reforms when we re-establish peace and calm in our country.

* We were ready to make reforms and draw up a new constitution with more freedoms before – but now is the time to fight these terrorists and liberate Libya.

* Al-Qaeda are present in the towns of Zawiya, Derna and Albayda. But there is also the emergence of armed groups of murderers and criminals organised into armed militias.

* There are two criminal militias and extremist Islamic organisations, and both are enemies of the Libyan people.





17 March: UN Security Council passes resolution in favour of military force against Libya

* Includes imposition of ‘no-fly’ zone and air strikes against Libyan army targets.

* Ten Council members voted in favour of the resolution which was brought to the council by France, Britain and Lebanon.

* Russia, China, India, Brazil and Germany abstained from voting.





19 March: International forces in operations in Libya.

* Several Western countries as well as some Gulf states intend to lend their military support for the operation to impose and maintain a no-fly zone over Libya.



21 March : Not long after the first wave of coalition airstrikes, the bitter battle for control of the rebel-held city of Misrata

* Shortly before the Gaddafi regime claimed it had ordered a ceasefire, government forces entered the last city held by rebels in the West of Libya.

* Tanks are in position and snipers stationed on rootops in a bid to maintain control.

* Warnings of heavy casualties and horrific injuries as troops shelled homes and businesses.

* Residents also claiming government boats were circling the port, preventing aid from reaching the city.

* News of the invasion came just hours after about 20 air-defence sites in Misrata – and the Libyan capital Tripoli – were battered by air strikes from French jets.

* The jets began a second night of patrolling Libyan airspace to enforce a no-fly zone.

* Abdelbasset, a spokesman for the rebels in Misrata, said the number of rebel casualties was rapidly growing.

* He said “There is fighting between the rebels and Gaddafi’s forces. Their tanks are in the centre of Misrata … There are so many casualties we cannot count them.”

* One resident, called Sami, said snipers killed two people in the port. “They are supported by four tanks, which have been patrolling the town.

* It’s getting very difficult for people to come out. There are also boats encircling the port and preventing aid from reaching the town.”

* Dr Khalid Abufalgha, who works at Misrata’s main hospital, pleaded for help “The international community has to come to protect the civilians.Yesterday, I have 25, today, since morning I have three and they are coming. They are amputations … severe injuries, crushing – I don’t know what they are using but please, come and protect the civilians – babies, women, all the civilians that is coming here, they have no … water, no food.”

* Residents in Misrata claimed that Gaddafi forces were shelling homes “with some force”.




21 March: On the road to Benghazi

* On a strategic road in East Libya, heading towards the rebel stronghold of Benghazi, Colonel Gaddafi’s wrecked tanks and other army vehicles smouldered.

* The coalition strike appeared to have taken government forces by surprise, placing a dramatic halt to the advance towards the city.

* Many bodies litter the roadside, about 14 Gaddafi tanks, 20 armoured personnel carriers, two trucks with multiple rocket launchers and dozens of pick-ups all destroyed.

* One tank a blackened wreck with its turret blown off. Another tank, a tank transporter and armoured personnel carriers smouldered.

* A few hundred metres ahead, munitions were still exploding as flames licked around vehicles.

* The attack gave rebels, who had been driven back to their stronghold of Benghazi by the Libyan leader’s air, sea and land offensive in the past two weeks, the chance to return to the town of Ajdabiyah – the hard fought over gateway to the East.

* Rebels, have mainly relied on 4×4 pick-ups with machine guns, heavily outgunned by Colonel Gaddafi ‘s forces before the airstrikes.

* Pharmacist Mohamed Joma said the planes had struck about 4am that day. “The tanks were pointing to Benghazi,” he said. “They wanted to go to Benghazi. They did not escape.”

* Agricultural worker Jamal al-Majbouri, who owns a farm nearby, showed no sympathy for the Gaddafi forces. He said “Tell the West to destroy Gaddafi slowly, piece by piece by piece, the way he did to us for 40 years.”





23 March: Coalition air strikes stop the advance of government forces

* Huge morale boost to the rebels.

* Residents of Benghazi hold rally in support of the coalition air campaign against Colonel Gaddafi’s forces.

* Reports from New York say the breakaway Libyan delegation at the UN, are backing the rebels.

* Diplomats attempting to establish a network parallel to that of the Gaddafi regime.






23 March: Ajdabiya ‘cut off from the world’

* Rebels have succeeded in defeating Libyan government forces in Ajdabiya. Attacking from 3 directions the rebels fought for 6 hours before taking the town.

* Gaddafi’s forces engaged in heavy clashes in Brega, Misrata and Raslanuf.

* No electricity or water in Ajdabiya.

* Calls for international community to step in and provide aid.

* African mercenaries fighting for Gaddafi taken prisoner by the rebel forces. 13 of them shown to the international media being handed over to the Red Cross.



25 March: Coalition aircraft bomb Libyan army positions in Ajdabiyah all day destroying many Libyan army tanks and artillery pieces.

* Rebels (only lightly armed with Kalashnikovs, RPGs and a few anti-aircraft guns) claim to have taken the city’s Eastern gate.

* Hopeful they will be able to recapture the crossroads to Benghazi. Vital if the rebels are to push on to the capital.

* Rebels, heavily reinforced and better equipped since their defeat the week before are now capable of attacking the city.



27 March: Libyan rebels in total control of Ajdabiya

* Fighting against Gaddafi’s forces lasted all of Friday night, but government troops eventually driven out.

* Rebels control gateway from Western Libya to their Eastern stronghold in Benghazi and the oil-producing town of Tobruk.

* Thousands of people gathering. Celebrating by firing shots into the air.

* Ajdabiya scene of a stalemate between the two sides after rebels had been pushed back towards the east by the leader’s men.

* Coalition air strikes allowed rebels to gain the upper hand and defeat a better-equipped opponent.

* Rebel spokesman said the town is ’100 per cent’ in their control and said they have taken 13 prisoners from amongst Gaddafi’s troops.

* Targetting road towards Brega, 80 kilometres further west, fighting government troops along the way.



28 March: Gaddafi’s hometown seized by rebels

* Celebratory gunfire over Benghazi following follows reports that Libyan rebels have captured Muammar Gaddafi’s hometown of Sirte.

* No independent confirmation of claim but Western journalists say it is quiet in the city.

* Rebel forces pushing West to retake a series of key towns from pro-Gaddafi troops who are being pounded by Western coalition air strikes.

* What a difference the coalition air strikes have made. A week ago, it looked like the end was approaching for the rebels.

* It now appears to be a dramatic reversal of fortune occurring with the rebels regaining control of the main eastern oil terminals such as Ras Lanuf and Tobruk.

* In besieged Misrata – the only western city in rebel hands – at least eight people are reported to have been killed after a fierce day of fighting.

* It is believed Gaddafi is re-grouping his forces in his stronghold of Tripoli.

* Two weeks of clashes and air strikes. Pro-Gaddafi forces being pushed back.

* Locals coming out in droves to view scenes of battle, removing vehicle parts to sell.




28 March: Rebels have defeated Libyan government forces in Ajdabiya.

* Attacking from three different directions fighting lasted for six hours before they got the whole town under control.

* Gaddafi’s forces in retreat and engaged in heavy clashes in Brega, Misrata and Raslanuf.

* No electricity or water in Ajdabiya which is cut off from the world.

* International community will need to provide aid.

* African mercenaries taken prisoner by rebel forces. 13 shown to international media, before being handed over to the Red Cross.




30 March: A night on the frontline in the desert with the Libyan rebels

* Rebels sang and chanted around the campfire, cooked and smoked narghile. They slept in their cars or on mattresses on the open ground.

* Plenty of bravado – but little evidence of hi-tech equipment or detailed military planning.

* If the coalition do decide to arm the rebels, groups like this could be among those to benefit.

* Rebels need not only weapons but training as well – a potentially long-term task.

* Experts say that the lessons of war in Afghanistan are that backup from foreign professional troops is necessary to prevent weapons supplied ending up in the wrong hands.

* Whilst there was no evidence of it within the group, US intelligence had identified signs of al Qaeda sympathisers within the rebel forces.




31 March: Libyan rebels have been retreating rapidly in the face of a renewed drive by government forces.

* The cover of allied air strikes allowed anti-Gaddafi troops to move westwards towards the capital, Tripoli last week.

* But soldiers loyal to Gaddafi have retaken the strategic oil port of Ras Lanuf.

* The towns of Nawfaliyah and Bin Jawad also fell in quick succession.

* Lacking leadership, communications equipment armed only with rifles and machine-guns on pick-ups or rocket-propelled grenades, rebels have been unable to hold on their gains.

* On Wednesday, coalition aircraft overflew the battlefield, but there was no evidence of any air strikes on Gaddafi’s forces.

* Rebels look set to regroup in Ajdabiyah, the last major city before Benghazi.





30 March: Libyan rebels have been forced to make a rapid retreat from Sirte in the face of Muammar Gaddafi’s better armed and better organised troops.

* The crucial factor is allied air strikes. Without them, the rebels seem unable to make advances or even hold positions.

* Rebel advance westward got within 80 km of the Gaddafi stronghold of Sirte when they were pushed back even beyond Bin Jawad.

* Reports are that residents in the town of Nawfaliyah fought alongside government troops and this is an ominous sign for world powers.

* All-out civil war now a distinct possibility.

* Hospital (badly damaged in a coalition airstrike) shown on Libyan TV.

* Journalists unable to verify the source of injuries to 13 people but the town of Mizda had evidently been badly damaged by some sort of military hardware.


1 April: Libyan rebels list terms of ceasefire

* Head of opposition’s National Council, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, met with a UN envoy, to outline the terms of a ceasefire.

* Before one to take place, the opposition want Colonel Gaddafi’s men to withdraw from any cities under siege, such as Misrata.

* They want their protests against Gaddafi to continue without disruption from the army, and to appoint a new leader of their choice. However, few believe a ceasefire is likely.

* At Friday prayers in Bengazi, rebels keen to show they are not terrorists.

* Preacher using speech denying Gaddafi’s claims that fighters in Bengazi are members of Al Qaeda.

* Locals thanking the US, Britain and France, but expressing their disappointment in Turkey.




4 April: Gaddafi’s few friends leave limited exit options

* Dozens of chanting supporters stood alongside the Libyan leader in his bombed-out bunker in Tripoli, waving their flags.

* It is the image that Colonel Gaddafi would like to portray to the world. A Libya where “everyone loves me”, as he said in an interview before the coalition strikes began, denying there was any meaningful uprising against his rule.

* The defiant stance is good for morale. But Gaddafi has not made an appearance like this – or any outing in public – since mid-March. Far from loving him, several of his entourage have been queuing up to leave. First there was the ex Libyan Ambassador to the UN, then Moussa Koussa the Foreign Minister, and this weekend came the turn of his adviser, Ali Triki.

* Even before foreign ministers gathered at the London summit, the U.S Secretary of State said that people close to the Colonel were making overtures, seeking a possible way out.

* Hillary Clinton told the summit “We must continue to pursue the broader goal of a Libya that belongs not to a dictator but to the Libyan people.

* We agree with the Arab League that Gaddafi has lost his legitimacy to lead.

* We agree with the African Union on the need for a democratic transition process.

* Although the Libyan opposition want Gaddafi brought to book, the main goal is an end to the fighting and his regime.”

* A scenario where that could be brought about by the dictator fleeing the country would have its merits.

* The question is who would want him? His friends are few and far between.

* Hugo Chavez has defends Gaddafi. His vociferous anti-Americanism is well known.

* At the start of the conflict false rumours had the Colonel on a plane to Venezuela.

* Chavez’s own future is in question. Welcoming an international outcast may not help.

* A possible shelter closer to home has been mooted. Like Gaddafi’s Libya, Zimbabwe under Robert Mugabe has not been averse to using terror to crush opponents.

* Saudi Arabia has been a haven for ex- dictators. Tunisia’s Ben Ali fled there. But Gaddafi is no friend of King Abdullah, and the Gulf state is not seen as a serious option.

* So, the solution may have to come from within Libya itself.

* Unless more defections cause the regime to collapse, the coalition’s main hope must be that the opposition can seize the moment.

* Air strikes have paved the way. But rebel inexperience and disorganisation have been exposed. If their will outlasts that of their long-term oppressor may well be decisive.



4 April: Libya’s rebel National Transitional Council (NTC) rejects a proposal from Gaddafi’s most prominent sons who wish to end the conflict

* Salaam and Saif al-Islam reportedly wish to be interim leaders if there is a transfer of power and their father steps down.

* Talks with Italy, (which has now recognised the NTC) have a negative outcome.

* NTC representative, Ali al-Essawi – Replacement of Gaddafi by one of his sons is not acceptable.

* They are all engaged in the killing of Libyans now and they are leading the military operations against Libyans”.

* Libya’s Deputy Foreign Minister Abdelati Obeidi is continuing his diplomatic mission to discuss an end to the fighting.

* His peace mission is due in Malta and Turkey soon but as yet without indication of any climbdown, other than a willingness to negotiate an end to NATO’s military operations.







5 April: Are Gaddafi peace proposals genuine?

* As Colonel Gaddafi’s envoys travel across Europe proposing a whole raft of peace settlements, representatives of the Gaddafi regime still insist that the ‘Brother Leader’ will not step down and that forces loyal to the regime are not killing civilians.

* Commentators note that this volley of peace proposals may, in fact, be no more than a delaying tactic designed to destabilise the coalition currently enforcing UN Resolution 1973 and give Gaddafi time to re-consolidate his hold on power.

* The defection of Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa has been seen by the West as a blow for the regime although the Libyan spokesman has denied this.

* Saif Gaddafi, the most high-profile of Gaddafi’s sons, still appears to be angling for a solution in which his father retires, handing the reins of power on to him.



Matthew VanDyke American Freedom Fighter Rebel with singer guitar player Massoud Abu Assir in Sirte Libya War
Matthew VanDyke American Freedom Fighter Rebel with singer guitar player Massoud Abu Assir in Sirte Libya War


5 April: ICC prosecutors seek Gaddafi arrest

* International prosecutors are seeking an arrest warrant for Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, accusing him of committing crimes against humanity.

* A son of the Libyan leader as well as his spy chief are also targeted.

* International Criminal Court prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo said “The evidence shows that Muammar Gaddafi personally ordered attacks on unarmed Libyan civilians. His second eldest son, Saif al-Islam, is the de facto prime minister. And (Abdullah) al-Sanussi, Gaddafi’s brother-in-law, is his right hand man, the executioner, the head of military intelligence. He personally commanded some of the attacks.”

* Saif has become a recognisable face on the international stage, defending his father’s crackdown on rebels.

* Libyan officials have already denounced the ICC prosecutor’s actions, saying the court is a creation of the West to prosecute African leaders.

* But rebel-held Benghazi had been crying out for such a move. ICC judges must now see if there is enough evidence for warrants to be issued.






7 April: One-time Libyan energy minister Omar Fathi Bin Shatwan defects to Malta.

* In a televised interview, Bin Shatwan said “Those near to Gaddafi are starting to drift away” .

* First it was ordinary people, then people from the government started to run out, now the time will come for the military. They should leave before it’s too late.”

* There is no future for Gaddafi’s troops most of whom are foreigners. Probably 70 or 80 percent are foreigners, mercenaries.”

* If the coalition cut’s off access to the sea, and denies him the oil, he cannot run his war machinery and he will surrender.”



15 April: Nato Conference on Libya

* There are signs that Britain and France might get the extra Nato resources they need to bomb Libya.

* At a meeting in Berlin today the two countries have been lobbying other allies to do more in the campaign against Muammar Gaddafi.

* Nato Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said: “Nato is absolutely determined to continue its operations as long as there is a threat against Libyan civilians.

* It is impossible to imagine that that threat will disappear with Gaddafi in power.”

* Rasmussen said he had indications that allies would provide extra strike aircraft needed for the operation in Libya.

* Not all Nato countries agree. Spain has said no and so has Italy.






16 May: International prosecutors seeking arrest warrant for Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, charging him with committing crimes against humanity.

* A son of the Libyan leader as well as his spy chief are also targeted.

* Evidence shows that Muammar Gaddafi personally ordered attacks on unarmed Libyan civilians,” said International Criminal Court prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo.

* His second eldest son, Saif al-Islam, is the de facto prime minister.

* Abdullah al-Sanussi, Gaddafi’s brother-in-law, is his right hand man, the executioner, the head of military intelligence. He commanded personally some of the attacks.

* Saif has become a recognisable face on the international stage, defending his father’s crackdown on rebels.

* Libyan officials have already denounced the ICC prosecutor’s actions, saying the court is a creation of the West to prosecute African leaders.

* But rebel-held Benghazi had been crying out for such a move. ICC judges must now see if there is enough evidence for warrants to be issued.




21 June: US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Investigates ExxonMobil, Conoco, and Occidental Over Libyan Connections

* Concerns financial firms may have repeatedly violated bribery laws in dealings with Libya’s sovereign wealth fund.

* Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requests information from ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips and Occidental Petroleum Corp. about their Libyan connections.


SEC ask oil companies for copies of any type of communications with the government of Gaddafi since 2008.

* Libya’s sovereign wealth fund launched in 2007. A number of other financial firms found to have started doing business with the LIA.

* Libya’s sovereign wealth fund made its strongest relationships with Goldman Sachs.

* Fund also invested with Societe Generale, HSBC, JP Morgan, Carlyle Group, Lehman Brothers, and Och-Ziff Capital Management Group.




29 June: UK Prosecutors Team Up With US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to Investigate Bribery Among Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs)

* Director of UK’s Securities Fraud Office (SFO) contacted by US over financial institutions and whether bribes were paid in transactions with sovereign wealth funds.

* Concerns that financial firms may have violated bribery laws in dealings with Libya’s sovereign wealth fund.

* SEC requested information from ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips and Occidental Petroleum Corp. about their Libyan connections.

* Disclosure follows SEC’s investigation of Goldman Sachs and other financial firms possibly violated bribery laws in dealings with the Libyan Investment Authority (LIA).

* SEC officials examining documents, including those related to a $50 million fee Goldman Sachs agreed to pay the Libyan fund to help recoup losses.

* SEC also asking oil companies for any type of communications they held with the government of Gadhafi since 2008.

* Since Libya’s sovereign wealth fund launched in 2007, several other financial firms found to have started doing business with the LIA.

* Libya’s sovereign wealth fund made its strongest relationships with Goldman Sachs.

* Fund also invested with Societe Generale, HSBC, JP Morgan, Carlyle Group, Lehman Brothers, and Och-Ziff Capital Management Group.






1 July: Internal Report Shows Libya’s Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF) Was in Chaos Even Before War,

* Internal audit completed by the Libyan Investment Authority, dated April 2010 revealed multi-billion dollar SWF pegged at a value of $64billion as of November 2010.

* Wracked by mismanagement and confusion almost a year before the country became embroiled in a civil war.

* In their analysis the auditors identified there were no effective policies in place to insulate the fund’s managers from conflicts of interests or taking bribes.

* Portfolio management tools, risk management tools, investment accounting, reconciliations and reporting systems are urgently required.

* Report detailed startling missteps and blunders, such as how the Libyan Investment Authority (LIA) bought large currency hedges for currencies that it did not own.

* Picture emerges of Western firms descending on the fund taking advantage of the fund’s inexperience, overcharging selling it investments it didn’t need.

* Another leaked document dated September 30, 2010 revealed a furious LIA directing anger at its investment partners.

* Investments with BNP Paribas, Credit Suisse, and the Permal fund of hedge funds all targets of criticism.

* High fees directly responsible for the poor results, the conclusion.

* SEC investigating multiple firms over possible illegalities involved with the LIA.






2 August: Libyan state television broadcasts a defiant message from Colonel Gaddafi’s son, at a time when the conflict shows signs of getting mired in stalemate.

* Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, who along with his father is accused by the International Criminal Court of crimes against humanity, told a group of families from Benghazi that fighting the rebels would continue come what may.

* No one should think that after the all sacrifices we have made and the martyrdom of our sons, brothers and friends, we will stop fighting. Forget it. Regardless of whether NATO leaves or not, the fighting will continue until all of Libya is liberated,” he said.

* If that did not happen, he added, they would continue fighting until they were all killed.

* The broadcast followed attempts to marginalise the Libyan leadership. Last month rebels welcomed an African Union offer to hold talks with the government without Colonel Gaddafi’s involvement.

* Britain’s Defence Secretary Liam Fox has admitted that military efforts alone will not be enough to topple him, saying the best chance of doing so is via a coup.




19 August: Ben Shatwan says billions stolen in Libya

* Questions are being asked about some in the Libyan rebel leadership. Who are they, and do they have clean hands?

* One of its leading spokesmen, Dr. Fathi Ben Shatwan was the industry minister for several years and then energy minister for two years.

* For years he was as close to Muammar Gaddafi as any non-family member, until 2006 when he quit the regime and fled on a small boat to Malta and from there to France.

* At interview he said “When the revolution began on February 20th I went to Misrata, my home town, with my family. I joined in the revolt for freedom, but after 45 days myself, Mustapha Abuljalil, the Justice Minister, and Interior Minister, Abdulfattah Younes and some others thought it would be better serving the revolution from Malta.

* He went on “As you know the revolution began peacefully, But the regime embarked on a violent route, which surprised everyone. This is the reason Britain, France, the United States and some other countries intervened. Remember when the bombardment of Benghazi began. If that had continued many innocent civilians would have died.

* I was Energy Minister, but in name only since for the last 10 years Saif Al Islam has been in charge of all economic affairs, the Libyan economy was in his hands.

* Those who worked on the Popular General Committee took their orders directly from him.”

* He was also in sole charge of transferring money and channelling funds abroad.

* Assessing oil production these last few years it would be safe to say that between $200-250 billion dollars US would have acrued.

* The bulk of it would have been transferred to investments or in other some other form.”

* Referring to Ghadhafi he said “I think the vice is tightening. He is encircled in a 50 kilometre circle around Tripoli.

* There are two options open to him. Continue to fight on with resulting high casualties or agree to a safe passage from Libya.


23 August: Gaddafi’s son free and confident of victory

* Saif al-Islam the son of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi has made a sudden appearance in the centre of Tripoli.

* Only hours earlier rebels and the International Criminal Court had said the 39-year-old had been captured.

* After jubilant supporters welcomed his arrival Saif al-Islam told journalists his father was safe and well and in Tripoli.

* Firstly I want to deny all the rumours, NATO and the West have modern technology and they blocked and jammed communications.

* They sent messages to the Libyan people through the internet. They stopped state broadcasts, and they’ve created a media and electronic war to spread chaos and fear in Libya.

* He told the BBC that by entering Tripoli, the rebels had fallen into “a trap” and that fighters loyal to his father were winning the battle for the capital.

* Gaddafi’s other son Mohammed who was taken by rebels while giving a live interview is now said to have escaped from house arrest.

* Muammar Gaddafi has not been seen in public since June although at the start of the uprising, he made several spontaneous and often bizarre appearances.

* Speculation is rife over the Libyan leader’s whereabouts. He could be in his Tripoli compound which his troops are fiercely defending or he could have fled to his home region of Sirte.

* Refuge in foreign countries cannot be ruled out although he has always vowed never to leave Libya.





24 August: White House: Obama method for regime change better than Bush method

* This week’s toppling of the Qaddafi regime in Libya shows that the Obama administration’s multilateral and light-footprint approach to regime change is more effective than the troop-heavy occupation-style approach used by the Bush administration in Iraq and Afghanistan, a top White House official told Foreign Policy today in a wide-ranging interview.

* Despite criticism from Congress and elsewhere, President Barack Obama’s strategy for the military intervention in Libya will not only result in a better outcome in Libya but also will form the basis of Obama’s preferred model for any future military interventions.

* On the role of the NATO operation in Libya, the civilian protection mission continues but that consultation will soon begin in Brussels on the conclusion of the mission.

* The need for the NATO protection mission is still present for now, Rhodes said, but the White House doesn’t anticipate the TNC requesting a peacekeeping force from NATO or the United Nations that involves any foreign boots on the ground. “There’s no plan for that type of effort,” he said.

* Rhodes said the drive to release between $1 billion and $1.5 billion of Qaddafi’s frozen assets to the TNC is moving along quickly. “We think that should be complete in the next few days and we don’t foresee an insurmountable problem there.”

* The Obama administration feels confident the TNC can manage the money and prevent it from being stolen or funneled to unsavory actors.

* The administration will also try to ensure the money goes to the urgent needs identified by the TNC.




27 August: Obama: ‘leading from behind’ on Libya

* Downfall of Muammar Gaddafi has been claimed by the White House as a vindication of President Barack Obama’s decision to “lead from behind”.

* Almost as soon as the rebels reached Tripoli, the administration’s deputy national security adviser for strategic communications, Ben Rhodes, began spinning the media that Obama’s light footprint approach to regime change was infinitely superior to the Bush approach.

* Administration officials fell over themselves to point out that the entire operation had not cost a single American casualty. One official even crowed that “Reagan targeted Gaddafi; George W Bush targeted Bin Laden; Obama has done both.”

* American commentators were not far behind the administration in declaring this operation as a victory for President Obama.

* Some wondered whether the Libya operation would aid President Obama’s chances at re-election. Others declared it a “nuanced victory” for a reluctant wartime president.

* Still others complained that President Obama was not getting enough credit from Republicans for his strategy of “limited engagement” in Libya.

* Even the normally sensible Fareed Zakaria heralded the Libya operation as ushering in a “new era in US foreign policy”.

* Such fulsome praise put the Republicans in a particularly difficult bind. Most of the current Republican leadership were cheerleaders for President Bush in his bloody experiment with regime change in Iraq, but are now tying themselves in knots trying not to credit Obama for his own regime change intervention in the Middle East.

* Senators John McCain and Lindsay Graham even released a statement that congratulated the British and French but expressed “regret that this success was so long in coming due to the failure of the United States to employ the full weight of our airpower”.

* The most evasive response came from GOP candidate Mitt Romney, who kept changing the subject in his media appearances by insisting that Libya hand over those behind the Lockerbie bombing to US authorities.

* Such self-aggrandisement, spin and dishonesty is predictable but disheartening. At the most basic level, the Beltway take on Libya reveals the narcissistic myopia of the American political establishment.

* On both sides of the political divide, American foreign policy experts seem incapable of imagining a crisis that does not demand more American “leadership”.

* They cannot believe that events such as the revolution in Libya are possible without the backing of America or that such events are not necessarily a referendum on the foreign policy of the sitting American president.

* Neither side questions the hyperactive interventionism of American foreign policy or challenges the premise that “regime change” should be pursued even when (as in Libya) it falls well outside the limits of the UN mandate.

* The focus on scoring this war as a “win” for one side in American politics is merely symptomatic of how detached and self-regarding this establishment is.

* It is absolutely true that the US deployed special forces to coordinate with the rebels and used its intelligence and satellite assets to facilitate Nato airstrikes in support of their advances.




* But any glance at television images from Libya makes clear that those doing the fighting (and dying) are Libyan.

* The overthrow of this odious regime – one that murdered its own people, supported terrorism and committed grave human rights abuses – should be credited to the Libyan people, not to Obama, Prime Minister Cameron or any of the other supporting players.

* Even if one wanted to engage in point-scoring for domestic American politics, it is hard to call this messy war a victory for the Obama administration.

* As argued previously, the Obama administration’s “strategy” in Libya – if, indeed, it merits the term – has been incoherent and contradictory.

* The performance of Nato hardly inspired confidence, taking six months of sporadic bombing to remove a decrepit regime that had already lost control of half of its territory.

* And as many others have noted, neither the US nor Europe appears to have a plan for managing the aftermath of the regime’s collapse.

* If this is a victory, it is one produced by circumstance and a fair amount of luck, rather than any ingenious plan from Washington.

* Obama administration has also waded into this mess in Libya without pausing to consider its regional implications. Until very recently, Gaddafi was held up for praise as a rehabilitated former enemy who gave up his weapons of mass destruction in return for diplomatic ties and trading relationships with the US and Europe.

* But when his people turned against him, his new allies were willing to throw Gaddafi under a bus to get on the right side of the Arab Spring.

* Of course, there were reasons for this: better to bet on the side of the young people seeking their freedom than on an autocratic ruler who had held power for 42 years.

* But even if the decision to abandon political support for Gaddafi was prudent and morally justifiable after the Libyan uprising, it does not follow that the US had to go further by supporting the rebels in forcing his removal, especially if this has dangerous regional implications.

* What conclusions will Syria and Iran draw from this turn of events?





* The decision to militarily back the rebels will remind these nervous regimes in the Middle East of the value of WMD programmes as an insurance policy against an aggressive and opportunistic America.

* Before he surrendered his weapons programme in 2003, Gaddafi was courted and threatened, but his regime remained intact; without them, he was cast aside as soon as a credible alternative appeared.

* After this experience, Iran, Syria and similar regimes may conclude that surrendering their weapons programmes or even opening themselves up to the West carries more dangers than it does rewards.

* It is one thing to withdraw support from a dictator who was past his sell-by date, but it is quite another to militarily back the overthrow of a regime if the consequence is to accelerate the nuclear arms race in the Middle East.

* Finally, it is hard to call this a victory for the US given the blatant unconstitutionality of the operation.

* President Obama waged the entire campaign to overthrow Gaddafi without authorisation under the War Powers Act because his lawyers insisted that “US operations do not involve sustained fighting or active exchanges of fire with hostile forces, nor do they involve US ground troops.” But the last few days have shown that this was clearly untrue.

* The US ultimately fought a covert war for regime change in Libya – its third violent overthrow of a government in the Middle East in ten years – without congressional authorisation and with barely a word of explanation to the American public.

* Even those glad to see the end of the Gaddafi’s rule will find it hard to celebrate yet another war waged by presidential prerogative alone.





29 August: wounded Gaddafi loyalist calls for peace

* Many Gaddafi loyalists wounded in the battle for Tripoli are now in the same hospital in the Libyan capital.

* Mustafa Saeed Awedat was wounded. His father is an important military commander whose clan is close enough to that of the Gaddafi’s to make him part of the family.

* Mustafa advised he had only taken part in fighting in Tripoli and had not left the city.

* I want to send a message to all the Libyan people, to my family, to my people to my brothers. They all love Muammar Gaddafi and should still love him but without bloodshed.

* Those who support the rebels can stay with the rebels also without bloodshed.

* The February 17 revolution came with freedom and democracy.

* Don’t let freedom of speech be built on blood between you, and don’t let it be like my legs,” he added, pulling back the blanket to reveal heavily bandaged limbs.

* Don’t let the hatred between you make you enemies. It’s not like people say, that Libya is many tribes. Libya is one tribe – it’s the tribe of Libya.


TRIPOLI, LIBYA - AUGUST 29: A Libyan Rebel stands and posed on an ornate mermaid loveseat, a wedding gift made to resemble Aisha Gaddafi, daughter of former Libyan dictator Moammar Gaddafi, while guarding Aisha's home from looters, on August 29, 2011 in Tripoli, Libya. (Photograph by Benjamin Lowy/Reportage by Getty Images)
TRIPOLI, LIBYA – AUGUST 29: A Libyan Rebel stands and posed on an ornate mermaid loveseat, a wedding gift made to resemble Aisha Gaddafi, daughter of former Libyan dictator Moammar Gaddafi, while guarding Aisha’s home from looters, on August 29, 2011 in Tripoli, Libya. (Photograph by Benjamin Lowy/Reportage by Getty Images)


29 August: Gaddafi family members in Algeria

* Close members of Muammar Gaddafi’s family have crossed into Algeria, according to the country’s official press agency.

* Gaddafi’s wife Safia, his daughter Aisha and his sons Hannibal and Mohammed are reported to be in the party which has sought refuge in Libya’s western neighbour.

* Monday the death of Gaddafi’s son Khamis was reported by the rebels after fighting in southern Libya.

* Algeria’s President Bouteflika has long-standing links with Gaddafi and his regime


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1 September: Divisions seen within Gaddafi family

* Saif-Al Islam Gaddafi, has gone on television with a message of defiance – vowing to continue the fight against rebel forces in Libya.

* His brother Saadi Gaddafi is attempting to negotiate a surrender.

* It’s not surprising now that the elements of the Gaddafi regime are in a confused state and are giving out different messages.

* Gaddafi’s sons are sending out mixed messages. “In the past 24 hours: messages of surrenders, messages of defiance,” said British Foreign Secretary William Hague.

* “messages of defiance are increasingly delusional, since having made them they run off to a new hiding place, rather than actually standing and fighting,” he added.

* Saadi Gaddafi says he had his father’s clearance to negotiate an end to the fighting and has made contact with the NTC

* Pictures have emerged of Muammar Gaddafi’s former foreign minister Abdelati Obeidi in custody after his arrest on Tuesday.



1 September: Libya’s NTC gives Sirte another week to surrender

* Libya’s National Transitional Council has given Colonel Gaddafi’s forces still entrenched in the town of Sirte another week to surrender.

* Opposition fighters are camped on the outskirts and access roads of the town, which is Gaddafi’s birthplace.

* As for the elusive former Libyan leader himself, he has reportedly been seen in the towns of Bani Walid and Ghadanis.

* The NTC has warned of an all-out military assault if Gaddafi loyalists do not yield Sirte.

* It is one of the last towns to hold out after Tripoli was overwhelmed last week, ending the regime which began exactly 42 years ago today




1 September: Gaddafi vows never to surrender

* Libyan television has broadcast a speech, said to be by Muammar Gaddafi, in which he vows never to surrender.

* The former Libyan leader says the towns of Sirte and Bani Walid are well armed to defend themselves.

* He described the opposition as a “bunch of gangsters” with a limited appetite for a fight. He urged his supporters to maintain their resistance, calling for a long battle.

* The agents of colonialism will fail, he added.



2 September: Gaddafi fleeing south, says tribal leader

* As the hunt continues for the ousted Libyan leader, an appeal has gone out to tribes and desert communities not to give him shelter.

* leaflets are being distributed in remote areas, promising local people they will remain safe if they shun Gaddafi.

* The former dictator and some of his family are said to have fled to the town of Bani Walid, but one tribal leader said Gaddafi himself is still on the move.

* Dr. Abdallah Kenchil from Bani Walid said: “We have confirmation the tyrant and his sons were in Bani Walid. Saif spoke from there on Wednesday, claiming he was in Tripoli.

* Relatives in Bani Walid have said that Gaddafi himself is on his way south, or is in the south, on his way to countries in the southern desert. This is confirmed.”

* An Algerian newspaper claimed Gaddafi phoned the Algerian president appealing for refuge, but his call was not answered. His wife and three of his children fled there earlier.

* On Thursday Gaddafi voiced defiance, vowing to wage what he called a battle of gangs and urban warfare. He is also warning his supporters will sabotage oil exports.

* The country’s new leaders have extended by a week a deadline for Gaddafi loyalists in his hometown of Sirte to surrender.




8 September: Asset Rich Libya Moves To Rebuild Economy

* For the new rulers of Libya, relaunching the country’s oil-export based economy is the priority.

* Sanctions imposed and assets frozen by western governments to pressure Gaddafi.

* Process being reversed and those same Western countries are likely to benefit economically.

* Libya has appreciating assets: an estimated 46.4 billion barrels of high quality light sweet crude oil.

* World Gold Council reports that in July Tripoli had reserves of almost 143.8 tonnes

* Last year nominal GDP was 60 billion euros and the economy grew by 7.4 percent.

* With three percent of the world’s crude, Libya’s future income is assured.

* International Energy Agency says the country’s oil exports are unlikely to return to their pre-war level before 2013.

* Libya’s bullion holdings at today’s price are worth close to 200 billion euros and the country’s central bank has said it has no liquidity issues.

* Libya’s interim government, seeking to reassure foreign investors, will honour banking licences granted by the ousted Gaddafi administration.



9 September: Interpol ‘Red Notice’ issued for Gaddafi

* Interpol has joined the hunt for Muammar Gaddafi.

* The world police organisation has issued what it calls a Red Notice for the arrest of the former dictator.

* His son Saif Al-Islam and former director of military intelligence Abdullah Al-Senussi are also the subject of notices.

* The International Criminal Court has requested Gaddafi’s arrest on charges of crimes against humanity, including murder and persecution.
* Gaddafi has so far avoided capture, but opposition forces say they are confident he will be found.

* A convoy of pro-Gaddafi officials, including a top general, this week fled to Niger, and there has been speculation that Gaddafi himself may try to go there.

* But Niger says it will respect its commitments to the International Criminal Court if the ousted leader or his sons enter the country.





28 September: Gaddafi reported to be near Algerian border

* As Libyan forces continue to bring the remaining pro-Gaddafi strongholds under their control it has emerged the ousted leader may be hiding close to the Algerian border.

* His hometown of Sirte is now completely surrounded and subject to regular bombardment.

* A senior NTC official said one of Gaddafi’s sons, Mutasseam, is in Sirte, possibly hoping to find refuge in Niger. However with the city encircled escape seems unlikely.

* The NTC believes Gaddafi is being sheltered by Toureg tribes near the Western city of Ghadamis. Search leaders said he had been seen in another southern town last week.

* The noose may be tightening but Gaddafi’s hardcore supporters remaining defiant.

* Images broadcast by Syrian TV, purported to show his son, Saif al-Islam, rallying his troops.

* His words, urging supporters to continue the fight undermine hopes of a negotiated surrender, by either him or his father.

* The source of the video could not be verified but the NTC believe he is in Bani Walid.






20 October: What has become of Gaddafi’s missing sons?

* He had been hiding with his father and, like him, he is now dead.

* Mo’tassim Gaddafi, the late Colonel’s National Security Advisor, was also captured alive but bleeding in Sirte. The circumstances of his death remain unclear.

* His body was taken to Misrata where people were said to be lining up to take pictures of it on their mobiles phones.

* As for the dead dictator’s most high-profile son and heir apparent Saif al-Islam, initial reports said he was in hospital after being shot and wounded.

* It was claimed he, too, was dead. But later, sources said he had escaped Sirte and was still on the run.





20 October: Once Upon A Time In the West Gaddafi Had Friends

* Gaddafi’s relationship with the West was going through something of a renaissance before the uprising began in February.

* He came bearing gifts — namely oil and gas — gifts the West found hard to turn down.

* Only a few months before the revolution Gaddafi was feted in Rome by Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.

* In Paris on 11 December 2007, a Libyan flag and a Bedouin tent decorated the gardens of the residence used for state visits in the French capital.

* Bilateral relations between France and Libya excellent. Lavish reception at the Elysee Palace was the icing on the gateau. But that was as good as it got for the colonel.

* One by one his former well-placed friends turned their backs on him and cosied up to the NTC, the new self appointed leaders of the oil-rich state.

* President Sarkozy went from backslapping to bombing and Berlusconi worked to secure Italy’s future in the new Libya. He who pays the piper calls the tune.






20 October: Nato Winds Down Libyan War Effort After 26,000 Air Missions

* Nato’s conduct during the campaign heavily criticised, particularly over the potential damage it has done to the UN concept of “responsibility to protect”.

* Dr Jonathan Eyal, senior fellow at Rusi, advanced “The moment the resolution passed, the West proceeded to interpret it in any way it wished.

* Officially, military intervention intended to protect civilians in Benghazi. But after Benghazi had been secured, the operation expanded and became open-ended.

* Officially the aim was not regime change, but many argued that this was precisely the objective.

* UN arms embargo had been set aside allowing Qatar to supply the rebels. A senior Whitehall source conceded “It was inevitably about regime change at the end of the day.”

* Though Nato insisted it worked within the UN resolution, it took its meaning to the legal limits to help bring down Gaddafi, and then provide support to hunt him down.

* Eyal said “the more this strategy is repeated, the more reluctant other countries will be provide a handful of western nations a blank cheque to use force.

* The West may be preventing the concept of humanitarian intervention from taking shape through its own short-sighted behaviour.”

* On a more parochial level, Libya stretched the British military. It was the first time Eurofighter Typhoons unsuited to the task had been used in a ground attack role.

* RAF relied heavily on ageing Tornado’s due to be slashed in number. The UK badly missed the aircraft carrier Ark Royal, scrapped in defence cuts the year before.



libya mapdg

20 October: Colonel Muammar Gaddafi obituary • Muammar al-Gaddafi, politician and soldier, born 1942; died 20 October 2011





20 October: Muammar Gaddafi’s death averts legal headache for National Transitional Council

* Death of Muammar Gaddafi avoids a potentially fraught legal process that could have pitted Libya’s NTC against the demands of international justice.

* His death will have prompted huge relief in several western capitals. In the dock, there was every prospect that the former dictator, with nothing to lose, would have spilled embarrassing secrets about Libya’s relations with leading European powers, international oil firms and former statesmen such as Tony Blair.

* Many oil corporations struck lucrative deals with his regime. including BP, Italy’s ENI and France’s Total. They too must be breathing a sigh of relief.



21 October: Has Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam been arrested?

* Captured or still on the run? The question remains with conflicting reports about the fate of Muammar Gaddafi’s most high-profile son, Saif al-Islam.

* Some sources say he has been arrested in the coastal city of Zlitan, around 300 kilometres west of Sirte, after suffering serious injuries in a bombing raid.

* Others suggest he escaped the clan’s final showdown and is heading across the Sahara for Niger, which has given refuge to another son and other senior aides.

* Saif al-Islam, once considered a possible heir-apparent to his father, is wanted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity.




26 October: Gadaffi’s son ready to surrender says NTC

* Muammar Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam is reportedly ready to turn himself in.

* According to Libya’s NTC he and former intelligence chief Abdullah al-Senussi want to hand themselves in to the International Criminal Court at the Hague.

* The pair are wanted on charges of crimes against humanity over Libya’s violent crackdown on protestors in February.

* Saif al-Islam was last seen in public in August, shortly after anti-Gaddafi forces entered Tripoli and is now thought to be somewhere near Libya’s southern border with Niger.




27 October: Gaddafi son offers to surrender to ICC claims NTC

* Libyan officials are claiming Muammar Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam wishes to surrender to the International Criminal Court (ICC) rather than suffer the same fate as his father.

* The NTC’s Abdel Majid Mlegta said Gaddafi wanted to go to The Hague with his father’s former intelligence chief and relative Abdullah al-Senussi.

* Both have already been indicted by the ICC for crimes against humanity during the attempted repression of the February revolution.

* Al-Senussi and Saif al-Islam have reportedly failed to find a host country for exile and are thought to be hiding in the southern Libyan desert.

* The desert has not yet given up it’s secrets. Human rights activists have found the bodies of 53 pro-Gaddafi loyalists shot dead in the courtyard of the Mahari hotel in Sirte.

* “It needs to be properly investigated by the NTC, and those responsible brought to account for the crimes,” says the Human Rights Watch’s Peter Bouckaert.

* An Arab tv crew has also released footage it says is of the body of Gaddafi, son Mo’Tassim, and the defence minister before being buried at a secret desert location.







28 October: Gaddafi’s son ‘seeking to give himself up

* The International Criminal Court is investigating reports that Muammar Gaddafi’s son is seeking to give himself up.

* A Libyan official from the NTC has said Saif al-Islam has crossed into Niger. He is trying to arrange a flight out of the desert to the war crimes court in The Hague.

* The United Nations Security Council has voted unanimously to end next week the international operations that have so divided it.

* The US welcomed the move, but is now worried about the new government’s approach to human rights.

* Susan Rice, the US Ambassador to the UN. said “There is concern as matters move forward, that the authorities make maximum effort to swiftly form an inclusive government.

* One that incorporates all aspects of Libyan society and in which the rights of all Libyan people are fully and thoroughly respected.”

* A new outward-looking Libya has come in the form of the country’s first English-language news, talk and music radio show, broadcast on an existing station in major cities.

* The programme has evolved from playing songs about rebellion and revolution in Arabic and English.

* The group of young Libyans who have launched “The Free Talk Show” say they want to help people move on from Gaddafi’s death and build a new nation from scratch.





28 October: Hague court confirms contact with Gaddafi son

* Muammar Gaddafi’s fugitive son Saif al-Islam is in touch with the International Criminal Court which is seeking to bring him to trial.

* Its prosecutor says informal contact has been made with the slain Libyan strongman’s heir-apparent who has been in hiding for months.

* Reports from Libya’s NTC suggested Saif, fearing for his life, had tried to arrange for an aircraft to fly him into the custody of the Hague tribunal.

* It is thought he may have been on the run with Libya’s equally sought-after former intelligence chief Abdullah al-Senussi.

* An NTC spokesman said al-Senussi has escaped to Niger, and that this has been verified by authorities there. He insisted he would be handed over to the ICC.

* Al-Senussi and Saif al-Islam have both been charged with crimes against humanity for attacks on civilian protesters in Libya in February.


libya rebel building



29 October: Gaddafi’s son protests his innocence in ICC talks

* The son of the late leader Libyan Muammar Gaddafi is negotiating with the International Criminal Court about giving himself up.

* Saif al-Islam is wanted for crimes against humanity, accused of hiring mercenaries to kill unarmed protesters.

* ICC prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo says contact has been made with the 39-year-old but his exact whereabouts are unknown.

* There is information a mercenary group is trying to help him to move to a different country. But the NTC are trying to prevent this.

* Saif al-Islam’s father, Muammar Gaddafi, was captured and killed by fighters loyal to Libya’s interim government on October 20th.

* The ICC had issued arrest warrants for Gaddafi, Saif and the former Libyan leader’s intelligence chief in June.

* Gaddafi was buried in an unknown location four days ago.






2 November: Ban Ki-moon visits Libya with promises

* The UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, has made his first visit to Libya since the fall of Muammar Gaddafi.

* He promised the new administration that the UN would do everything it could to help ensure any nuclear or chemical weapons materials did not fall into the wrong hands.

* He said  “The former regime under Gaddafi has reported to the relevant international United Nations organisations on nuclear materials as well as chemical weapons,”

* The UN Security Council also heard from the International Criminal Court about the ongoing hunt for Gaddafi’s son, Saif al-Islam.

* The ICC’s Chief prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo said “We are also receiving information that a group of mercenaries may be facilitating Saif al-Islam’s escape from Libya.”

* Beyond the problem of Saif providing a rallying point for Gaddafi diehards, the question of unsupervised weapons lying around Libya is key.

* Some may find their way to Saif; others may reach terrorist groups outside the country.





19 November: Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam is arrested in Libya

* Almost unrecognisable in traditional robes and a heavy black beard, Saif al-Islam, Colonel Gaddafi’s fugitive son, has been arrested in southwest Libya.

* Detained by a militia force near the town of Obari, he was flown north to their base in Zintan where his removal from the plane was delayed because of a crowd on the runway.

* Suffering a hand injury, Gaddafi’s son is otherwise said to be in good health. His capture sparked joy across Libya and calls for him to face justice at home.

* A Tripoli resident said “They stole our wealth, Libya’s wealth, and they killed Libya’s young people and they raped women. He has to be tried in Libya.

* After the brutal killing of Muammar Gaddafi during his capture last month, many outside Libya want the International Criminal Court to try Saif.

* Having indicted father and son for crimes against humanity over the killing of demonstrators, the tribunal’s prosecutor Luis Moreno Ocampo is due in Libya next week.






19 November: The two faces of Saif al-Islam

* In his last appearance before international TV cameras in August, Saif al-Islam cut a defiant figure.

* Surrounded by armed followers and smiling confidently, it was in keeping with a man who had transformed his once reformist tendency for a militant one.

* Saif was the most high profile of Gaddafi’s children and the heir apparent to his regime. At the height of the uprising, he vowed to fight and die on Libyan soil.

*But he was not always so hard-line. Educated at the London School of Economics, he was seen by many as a liberal reformer and architect of rapprochement.

* He did indeed play a lead role in negotiations to end Libya’s chemical and nuclear programme in exchange for an end to sanctions.

* Saif also founded an independent newspaper, advocated a new constitution and was sometimes openly at odds with his father.




20 November: Gaddafi’s spy chief arrested in southern Libya

* A day after the arrest of Colonel Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam, it is the end of the road, too, for the late leader’s fugitive former spy chief.

* Libya’s new rulers say Abdullah al-Senussi, Gaddafi’s brother-in-law, was seized in a southern desert region, apparently at his sister’s house.

* Senussi was a key figure in the old regime and faces crimes against humanity charges at the Hague-based International Criminal Court.




23 November ICC: Saif al-Islam to be tried in Libya

* Libyan transitional government has been given a stamp of approval by the international criminal court.

* ICC had earlier issued a warrant for Colonel Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam. But they now say they have confidence, that the new government can deal with his trial, internally.

* Abdullah al-Senussi, Gaddafi’s former spy chief, is also to be put on trial. He was captured by fighters not far from where Saif al-Islam was seized a day earlier.

* France has said it may ask for his extradition in relation to an airliner bombing in 1989.

* Louis Moreno-Ocampo, ICC chief prosecutor said “Libya is now established, it is a new government and they have the right to prosecute Saif and Sennussi here, and in according to our rules the primacy is with the national system. If they conduct the proceedings, the court will not intervene.”

* It has not been all plain sailing for the new government however, as a number of Libya’s clans have said they will refuse to recognise it.

* Colonel Gaddafi ruled the country for over 40 years and expertly managed the tribes, but rivalries are beginning to revive which threaten the countries stability.




23 November: New Libyan government aims to soothe rivalries

* Security, stability and a return to normal life are the priorities outlined by Libya’s new transitional government, unveiled by interim Prime Minister Abdurrahim El-Keib.

* National reconciliation is another key aim amid growing signs of regional tension, three months after the end of Muammar Gaddafi’s rule.

* A Tripoli resident said “I would like to advise them to look after the Libyan people as they have suffered for 42 years under Gaddafi’s regime and before that under Italian and Turkish colonisation. But we are optimistic and hope for the best. We hope good times lies ahead.”

* The NTC cabinet will run Libya until elections are held. And that is no easy task in a country still deep in the wreckage of the failed state that is Libya.